Ministries of India
The Parliament of India comprises the head of state â€” the president of India â€” and the two Houses which are the legislature. The President of India is elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of members of federal and state legislatures. The House of the People (Lok Sabha) has 548 members, 543 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies and two members appointed to represent the Anglo-Indian community (as envisaged by the Constitution of India, currently the members of Lok Sabha are 545, out of which 543 are elected for 5-year term and 2 members represent the Anglo-Indian community). The 550 members are elected under the plurality ('first past the post') electoral system.
Council of States (Rajya Sabha) has 245 members, 233 members elected for a six-year term, with one-third retiring every two years. The members are indirectly elected, this being achieved by the votes of legislators in the state and union (federal) territories. The elected members are chosen under the system of proportional representation by means of the Single Transferable Vote. The twelve nominated members are usually an eclectic mix of eminent artists (including actors), scientists, jurists, sportspersons, businessmen and journalists and common people.
President of India
The President of India is the head of state of the Republic of India. The President is the formal head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President is indirectly elected by the people through elected members of the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) as well as of the state legislatures (Vidhan Sabha), and serves for a term of five years. Historically, ruling party (majority in the Lok Sabha) nominees (for example, United Progressive Alliance nominee Shri Pranab Mukherjee) have been elected or largely elected unanimously.
Incumbent presidents are permitted to stand for re-election. A formula is used to allocate votes so there is a balance between the population of each state and the numberof votes assembly members from a state can cast, and to give an equal balance between State Assembly members and the members of the Parliament of India. If no candidate receives a majority of votes, then there is a system by which losing candidates are eliminated from the contest and their votes are transferred to other candidates, until one gains a majority. The Vice-President is elected by a direct vote of all members (only elected) of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Although Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the President can exercise his or her powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive authorities vested in the President are in practice exercised by popularly elected Government of India, headed by the Prime Minister. This Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister with the help of Council of Ministers.
The President of India resides in an estate in New Delhi known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan (which roughly translates as President's Palace). The presidential retreat is The Retreat in Chharabra, Shimla and Rashtrapati Nilayam (President's Place) in Hyderabad.
The 13th and current President is Pranab Mukherjee elected on 22 July 2012 and sworn-in on 25 July 2012. He is also the first Bengali to be elected as the president. He took over the position from Pratibha Patil who was the first woman to serve in the office.
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In others, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet and allocates posts to members within the government.
In parliamentary systems (called the Westminster system), the prime minister is the supervising and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers.
Who is responsible for passing bills? Like FDI or Health Care Bill or Housing Scheme. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of parliament and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies, the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative) which are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament.
As well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or titles.
For example, The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service.
Prime Ministers may take other ministerial posts.
For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defense. So, there was no Ministry of Defense then.
A Chief Minister is the elected leader (head of government) of a state of India.
The chief minister is the head of the state, (governor is the nominal head and does everything under the guidance of the chief minister) cabinet, and the leader of the state Legislature. By the Constitution of India, the chief minister is appointed by the Governor of the state.
The parliamentary system in India follows the Westminster system (Still follow UK system). Hence the chief ministers of the states are elected by the members of the legislature.
The people do not elect the head of the government; rather they elect their representatives only. In turn their representatives select the head of the government. But once the head of the government is elected, he or she enjoys almost exclusive executive powers. This is in contrast with the head of the state, the Governor, who is the ceremonial head of state.
The Constitution of India sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the Chief Minister.
A Chief Minister must be:
- A citizen of India
- Should be a member of the state legislature. If a person is elected chief minister who is not a member of the legislature, then he/she must become a member within six months.
- Of 25 years of age or more
The chief minister is elected through a majority in the state legislative assembly. This is procedurally established by the vote of confidence in the legislative assembly, as suggested by the governor of the state who is the appointing authority.
Since, according to the constitution, the chief minister is appointed by the governor, the swearing in is done before the governor of the state.
The oath of office
"I, [Name of Minister], do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as a Minister for the State of
The oath of secrecy
"I, [Name of Minister], do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as a Minister for the State of
By Article 164 of the constitution of India, remuneration of the chief minister as well as other ministers is to be decided by the respective state legislatures. Hence this varies from state to state.